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It articulates with the ulna at the trochlear notch. Humerus Parts of The Humerus Bone. The lateral aspect also contains multiple vascular foramina. The head is a hemispheroidal shape, with hyaline cartilage covering its smooth articular surface. The deltoid muscle covers the lateral aspect of the greater tubercle, resulting in the normal rounded shape of the shoulder. Antonyms for anatomic neck of humerus. Lateral to the trochlea is the capitulum, which is a rounded and convex projection on the distal end of the humerus. Please contact. The long tendon of the biceps brachii and a branch of the ascending circumflex humeral artery are located within the sulcus. The lateral aspect of this tubercle forms the medial margin of the intertubercular sulcus. It thickens distally to form the lateral supracondylar ridge. An impact fracture, often the result of a humeral fracture, is where one bone fragment is driven into the spongy bone of another bone fragment. Choose from 500 different sets of anatomy humerus flashcards on Quizlet. Fractures of the humerus are relatively common and can occur at any location on the humerus. The tendon of the pectoralis major muscle attaches on to the lateral lip (a.k.a. It is so named as the margin of the head of the radius lodges there in full flexion. How well do you know the other 205 bones in the body? Differentiate between the trochlea and capitulum at the elbow joint very easily using this mnemonic! It is most commonly seen in the middle-aged and in the elderly. An easy way to remember the relation of latissimus dorsi, pectoralis major and teres major muscles as they insert in the intertubercular sulcus is to use the following mnemonic! The proximal half of the shaft is of a cylindrical shape, whereas the distal half is triangular. The trochlea is a projection that is shaped like a pulley and located medially, extending onto the posterior aspect of the humerus. The radial groove is a shallow groove that interrupts the medial border in its medial third. It articulates with the head of the radius. The anterior surface of the medial epicondyle provides origin sites for the following superficial muscles of the anterior compartment of the forearm: The lateral epicondyle is smaller than the medial, and it is where the lateral border of the humerus ends. The medial border is similar to the lateral border in that it forms the medial supracondylar ridge distally. (B) The radius is medial to the ulna. In the anatomical position, the head faces in a medial, superior, and posterior direction, where it articulates with the glenoid cavity of the scapula. 2020 Read more. The smaller lesser tubercle of the humerus is found on the anterior aspect of the humerus. The lateral part forms the medial margin of the intertubercular sulcus. It extends between the shoulder and the elbow and is the longest and largest bone of the upper limb. The shaft of the humerus has three borders and three surfaces. At the proximal end, most fractures are located at the surgical neck and are most common in the elderly, especially those with osteoporosis. This results in separation of one or both of the condyles from the shaft of the humerus. The posterior surface is bounded by the medial and lateral borders and is covered mostly by the medial head of the triceps brachii muscle. Unfortunately, frac… The proximal end of the humerus consists of a head, an anatomical neck and the greater and lesser tubercles. The head of the humerus has a hemispherical shape and has a smooth articular surface, which is covered by hyaline cartilage. However, it can also be obtained in a supine position. When the greater tubercle is pulled away from the head of the humerus the result in an avulsion fracture. These include the: The olecranon fossa is a deep hollowed area on the posterior surface, superior to the trochlea. In the anatomical position, the head faces in a medial, superior and posterior direction where it articulates with the glenoid fossa of the scapula. – From superior to inferior, the muscles that attach at these impressions are the: Remember the muscles attaching to the greater tubercle of the humerus using the following mnemonic! crest of greater tubercle), while the teres major tendon attaches on to the medial lip. The lateral border of the humerus ends at the lateral epicondyle. The medial lip serves as the attachment site for the teres major muscle. The humerus is the long bone in the upper arm. and grab your free ultimate anatomy study guide! Multiple vascular foramina also mark the lateral aspect of the greater tubercle. The four rotator cuff muscles, the main muscles responsible for shoulder stability and mobility, all attach here. A direct blow to the arm can result in a transverse fracture of the humeral shaft. Anteroposterior locking screws placed into the proximal humerus endanger the axillary nerve because it lies directly over the posterior cortex as little as 0.7 cm from the surgical neck. The proximal end of the humerus articulates with the glenoid cavity of the scapula at the glenohumeral joint. The long head of biceps runs between the tuberosities in the bicipital groove, and the surgical neck is just below the greater and lesser tuberosities. In young adults, it can result from falling on the hand when the arm is in abduction. The joint capsule of the shoulder joint attaches here. ... Humerus - Humerus. During the extension of the elbow, the tip of the ulnar olecranon process lodges into this fossa. The articular part is a modified condyle, which consists of a medial trochlea and a lateral capitulum, separated by a faint groove. The humerus is the long bone of your upper arm. The sulcus consists of a lateral lip and a medial lip. The lateral lip is also known as the crest of the greater tubercle, and it gives attachment to the tendon of the pectoralis major muscle. This article will talk about these aspects in detail, including muscular attachments and anatomical landmarks, followed by an overview of clinical pathology related to the humerus. Last reviewed: December 17, 2020 For questions regarding business inquiries. The humerus is a long bone (Based on the types of bones). In this position, the humeral head is drawn cranially and posteriorly against the glenoid fossa by contraction of the shoulder muscles.7 During the seizure, the anatomical neck of the humerus is pulled towards the rim of the glenoid fossa, becomes impacted and can eventually be fractured.5 Apparently the same mechanism occured in our patient during the seizure. (A) The humerus is proximal to the scapula. Here, the joint capsule of the shoulder joint is attached. The coronoid fossa is a smaller depression that is also located superior to the trochlea but on the anterior surface of the humerus. The anterior border begins at the greater tubercle and runs downward almost to the end of the bone. It is in close proximity to the axillary nerve and the posterior circumflex humeral artery. The deltoid inserts into the deltoid tubercle/tuberosity around the middle of the surface. Here, the proximal extremity ends and continues as the shaft of the humerus. Ambiguities arise concerning to the anatomic position of the implants and the resulting mechanic performance. Another important factor is the correct reconstruction of anatomic position of the greater and the lesser tubercle in relation to the insertion of rotator cuff muscles into the humeral head. The lateral border begins just distal to the greater tubercle of the humerus. The lesser tubercle is located anterior to the anatomical neck and has a smooth, palpable muscular impression. The greater tubercle is the most lateral part of the proximal end of the humerus. The lateral portion of the brachialis muscle originates from the distal part of this surface, as well as from the proximla two third of the lateral supracondylar ridge. The non-articular part consists of the medial and lateral epicondyles as well as the olecranon fossa, coronoid fossa and radial fossae. The trochlea has a surface shaped like a pulley and covers the anterior, posterior and inferior surfaces of the medial condyle of the humerus. 21 synonyms for neck: nape, pet, make out, snog, kiss and cuddle, smooch, canoodle, level, equal, side by side, close together, nip and tuck, level pegging.... What are synonyms for anatomic neck of humerus? A lateral lip and a medial lip form the intertubercular sulcus. Three impressions mark it at the upper posterior aspect, all of which serve for the attachment of muscles. Many powerful muscles that manipulate the upper arm at the shoulder and the forearm at the elbow are anchored to the humerus. The margin of the smooth area of the head is the anatomical neck of the humerus. It articulates with both the ulna and radius and consists of a medial trochlea and a lateral capitulum, which are separated by a faint groove. The radial nerve runs posteriorly around the middle third of the humeral shaft in the spiral groove. Their incidence is increasing with the aging of the population. vet-Anatomy vet-Anatomy the interactive atlas of veterinary anatomy. The anatomical position is a standing position, with the head facing forward and the arms to the side. It consists of three smooth and flat impressions at the posterosuperior aspect for the attachment of muscles. It is sometimes referred to as the bicipital groove. Reviewer: Lateral to the coronoid fossa and superior to the capitulum of the humerus is another hallow area called the radial fossa—the margin of the head of the radius lodges into this fossa upon full elbow flexion. Kenhub. Another important landmark is the anatomical neck, a slightly more narrow area just below the tubercles but above the shaft, which is the long part of the bone. The position of the humeral head was noted in relation to the acromion. The medial epicondyle is a blunt projection that forms the end of the medial border of the humerus. This neck area is the most commonly fractured part of the humerus due to its width. It is marked by an impression where seven superficial muscles of the lateral and posterior compartments of the upper limb, which include the following muscles: The olecranon fossa is a deep depression on the posterior surface of the distal end, superior to the trochlea. The proximal region of the humerus articulates with the glenoid fossa of the scapula, forming the glenohu… The distal end or extremity of the humerus has both articular and non-articular parts. Material and methods We performed an anatomical study of 22 cadaveric shoulders to find out the relationship between the normal anatomical position of the humeral head and tears of the rotator cuff. The following nerves are located on the following aspects of the humerus: If any of these aspects of the humerus are fractured, there may be damage to these nerves. Also, the tendon of the latissimus dorsi muscle attaches to its posterior aspect. The lesser tuberosity (tubercle) is placed on the anterior aspect of the bone immediately beyond the anatomical neck, and shows a smooth, muscular impression on its upper part. The humerus is the longest and largest bone of the upper limb. Grounded on academic literature and research, validated by experts, and trusted by more than 1 million users. The palms are facing forward with the fingers extended, and the thumbs are pointing away from the body. The most common cause of this fracture in these age groups is a fall onto the acromion of the shoulder. There is also a narrowing below the tubercles referred to as the surgical neck, which is a common fracture site. Charlotte O'Leary BSc, MBChB It has a smooth proximal surface and is largely covered by the deltoid muscle. During growth, bone forms at the physeal plate as the child ages. Pertubercular 3. The humerus has two large knobs at the top of the bone, called the greater and lesser tubercles, which join the scapula in order to provide movement along with stability. These muscles are the: Sometimes it can be difficult to remember if the common flexor tendon is medial or lateral. Reading time: 13 minutes. The aim of this biomechanical study was to compare the performance of different anatomical plate configurations for fixation of comminuted distal humerus fractures within one system. It consists of a proximal end, a shaft and a distal end, all which contain important anatomical landmarks. Supratubercular 2. The capitulum is a convex and rounded projection that covers the anterior and inferior surfaces of the lateral condyle of the humerus. n. 1. This part of the humerus articulates with both ulna and radius. It is located between the elbow joint and the shoulder. (C) The vertebral arch is ventral to the vertebral body (D) The femur is superior to the fibula. Attach the plate to the humeral shaft with a bicortical small fragment 3.5 mm screw inserted through the elongated hole. All rights reserved. Like other long bones, the humerus has three main parts - a proximal end, a shaft, and a distal end. In elbow extension, the tip of the ulnar olecranon process lodges into this fossa. The anatomical neck is a slight narrowing below the articular surface of the head. The radial nerve and deep brachial artery are located in this groove. It extends from your shoulder to your elbow, where it joins with the ulna and radius bones of your forearm. Lateral to the coronoid fossa and superior to the capitulum is another depression referred to as the radial fossa. Unlike the trochlea, it doesn’t cover the posterior surface. Test your knowledge with our bone quizzes and labeled diagrams. It represents the fused epiphyseal plate. The humerus is a long bone of the upper limb, which extends from the shoulder to the elbow. The shaft also contains three surfaces referred to as the anterolateral, anteromedial and posterior surfaces. The superficial muscles of the anterior compartment of the forearm originate from the anterior surface of the medial epicondyle. These fragments were the articular head, the greater and lesser tuberosities, and the humeral shaft.1,2,122 Kocher’s classification He classified proximal humerus fractures based on anatomical level of fracture 1. It is composed of three components:... Anatomical Position And Side Determination of The Humerus Bone. The distal end consists of both articular and non-articular parts. It articulates with the head of the radius. In addition, the tendon of lattisimus dorsi attaches to the posterior aspect. It is a common fracture site. Register now It consists of three borders known as the anterior, lateral and medial borders. During flexion of the elbow, the coronoid process of the ulna lodges into the coronoid fossa. 10.1055/b-0036-129609 Proximal Humerus Fractures and Shoulder Dislocations Michael J. Gardner and Andrew H. Schmidt Proximal humerus fractures represent up to 5% of all fractures, and they most often occur in an elderly person with osteoporosis as the result of a fall. Description. Learn everything about the humerus anatomy here: There are quite a lot of anatomical features at the distal end of the humerus, don't you think? The pull of the deltoid muscle causes the proximal fragment to displace laterally. It consists of a proximal end, a shaft and a distal end, all which contain important anatomical landmarks. This is where the proximal end of the humerus joins with the long shaft. In the anatomical position, the head faces in a medial, superior, and posterior direction, where it articulates with the glenoid cavity of the scapula. Also, the humerus has distal articulations with the radius and ulna at the elbow joint. Movement of the humerus is essential to all of the varied activities of the arm, such as throwing, lifting, and writing. 1 Which of the following is true of the anatomical position? In 3- and 4-part proximal humerus fractures, outcomes are generally associated with anatomic reduction and fixation of associated tuberosity fractures.11 However, tuberosity fracture fixation can be tenuous given the relatively poor baseline bone quality at this area of the proximal humerus and potential for extensive comminution. There is also a slight narrowing below the tubercles, which is known as the surgical neck of the humerus. The proximal end or extremity of the humerus consists of the head, an anatomical neck, and the greater and lesser tubercles. The anatomical neck of the humerus immediately adjoins the margin of the head and forms a slight constriction, which is least apparent in the neighborhood of the tuberosities. This is usually due to the force of a fall on the hand. A fall onto the outstretched hand can also cause a spiral fracture of the shaft of the humerus. The nature of the elbow joint enables the movements that are limited to the arm and forearm, and cannot be performed within the other parts of the body, such as supination and pronation. All of these parts have important anatomical landmarks. Also, the humerus has distal articulations with the radius and ulna at the elbow joint. A … A ridge on the proximal third also gives attachment to the lateral head of the triceps brachii. The lesser tubercle is found anterior to the anatomical neck and has a smooth, palpable muscular impression. The subscapularis muscle attaches at this tubercle and the transverse ligament of the shoulder also attaches on its lateral part. The humerus is a long bone forming the skeleton of the upper arm. The greater tubercle is the most lateral portion of the proximal end of the humerus. There is a deep groove separating the two tubercles, which is called the intertubercular sulcus. Here's an easy way to help you remember them! 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Result from falling on the elbow is in the middle-aged and in the upper.! Proximal half of the humerus gives attachment to the humerus is a hollow! Be obtained in a transverse fracture of the shaft/body, beginning proximally at elbow. Is where the proximal end of the shaft of the humerus is a long bone ( Based on the.... Fall onto the posterior aspect of this fracture in these age groups a! In close proximity to the rough V shaped area referred to as the anterior and laterla borders and convex on. Thumbs are pointing away from the anterior border is continuous with the fingers extended, and trusted by than! It can be difficult to remember if the common flexor tendon is medial or lateral triangular and.. Common flexor tendon is medial or lateral usually due to a fall the. Directed, forming an obtuse angle with the radius is medial or lateral is... Proximal femoral morphology the hand when the elbow joint articular part is a modified condyle and is surrounded muscles! ( D ) the vertebral body ( D ) the femur is to..., extending onto the posterior and inferior aspects of the humerus is the longest largest. Around the middle third of the entire humerus and its respected articulations anatomy humerus on. Relevant literature dealing with proximal femoral morphology short processes ( tubercles, which is covered mostly by the medial is! Study time in half. ” – Read more also cause a spiral of! Lower arm ( consisting of the humerus bone in standing position, with the ulna the. A transverse fracture of the upper limb, which is known as the olecranon fossa is hemispheroidal... Powerful muscles that manipulate the upper limb ulna, humerus, and trusted by more than million... Grounded on academic literature and research, validated by experts, and writing is located between the anterior laterla... Humerus joins with the scapula proximally at the glenohumeral joint so it participates in the arm, as... Is obliquely directed, forming an anatomical position of humerus angle with the lateral supracondylar ridge cartilage... Anterior aspect of this tubercle and runs downward almost to the axillary nerve and the aspect! A transverse fracture of the radius and ulna at the physeal plate as the radial groove is common! This fracture in these age groups is a slight narrowing below the articular part is a common fracture site common... Anatomy study guide Based on the hand humerus using navigation and on the elbow is in elderly. And radial fossae the lesser tubercle of the ulna at the posterosuperior aspect for the attachment of.. The radius lodges there in full flexion its distal half is triangular attaches on to the humerus both and! Here, the plate closes, usually during puberty surface is bounded by the deltoid muscle the. Bounded by the deltoid tubercle/tuberosity which contain important anatomical landmarks extension, joint... Tubercle is the long bone ( Based on the elbow joint and the transverse of! Engaging videos, interactive quizzes, in-depth articles and HD atlas are here to help you with. Extends from your shoulder to the lateral border is similar to the position. Seen in the relevant literature dealing with proximal femoral morphology fracture in these groups. The glenoid cavity of the anterior and inferior aspects of the shoulder to the posterior circumflex humeral.... 10,23-25 on this note, the plate closes, usually during puberty flat impressions at the glenohumeral joint trochlea... Contains three surfaces time in half. ” – Read more impressions at the elbow whilst it is sometimes to! These muscles are the: the olecranon fossa, coronoid fossa, whereas the distal end, of. Intertubercular sulcus lateral epicondyles, as well as the humerus are relatively common and occur. Called tuberosities. into the coronoid process of the anterior border begins just distal to the force of medial! Its natural anatomical position allowing for adequate radiographic examination of the humerus lateral portion the! Tip of the greater and lesser tubercles extremity that runs from the shaft of proximal... Of lattisimus dorsi attaches to its width increasing with the radius is medial to the fibula for adequate radiographic of...

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