how much land does china own in jamaica

He says the Jamaican government should have negotiated terms that require Chinese firms to hire locals at all job levels, not just as labourers. Reflecting the political sensitivity of the continuing increase in the number of Chinese workers on the island, Mr Henry said that JISCo has been asked to provide details of the required job qualifications to ensure that “no Jamaican who is qualified for these…is left out.” He also confirmed that the company would be employing the existing Alpart staff, recruiting most former and available employees and creating around 700 new jobs from the latter part of 2016. Despite the scale, this selloff did not significantly affect the U.S. economy, thereby limiting the impact that such an action may have on U.S. decision-making. The Jamaican government said it will raise an additional US$57m of the overall funding required. She also took him on a tour of the island. Earlier this month, Prime Minister Holness spent eight days visiting China. It involves the Chinese building a $1.5bn deep water container port on islands in Jamaica using dredging and land … I'm just saying it's not something unique to the Chinese.". "One, the terms are quite generous — long repayment periods, low interest. She shared the findings with members of the Jamaican Parliament, and then-newly elected Prime Minister Andrew Holness. Published. And thirdly, what you find is that it comes with less conditionality than Western aid.". Jamaica is in our own backyard, not China’s. "The Panama Canal is critical for trade in the Americas," said Scott MacDonald, an analyst of China-Caribbean relations for the Center for Strategic and International Studies, a D.C.-based think-tank. It has been marked on the map by a yellow triangle. China's Ambassador to Jamaica, NIU Qingbao, is urging local contractors to stop complaining about the number of Chinese companies landing big contracts in Jamaica and instead work on making themselves more attractive. Audience Relations, CBC P.O. MacDonald says the U.S. has a point about China's potential leverage over some BRI countries. Explore Visualizations How many of each type of land belongs to each man live in the country. Kingston is the capital and largest city of Jamaica, located on the southeastern coast of the island.It faces a natural harbour protected by the Palisadoes, a long sand spit which connects the town of Port Royal and the Norman Manley International Airport to the rest of the island. "Four per cent of Jamaica's debt is owed to China — not a huge amount," he said. By Reality Check team BBC News. If we could get that break in China, wouldn't we?". We reserve the right to close comments at any time. The national capital is Kingston. Confirming trends forecast in recent reports from the United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC), Chinese companies have recently announced major diversified investments in Jamaica and St Lucia. This information is available to the public upon request but the applicant is required to pay a … The Royal property portfolio extends all over the UK, with farms, forests and famous hotels all included in the mix. It is registered for VAT in the UK under number 998253657. The most common import partners for Jamaica are United States ($2.03B), China ($584M), Japan ($238M), Germany ($118M), and Mexico ($109M). Construction of the port would have also required dredging around the island, which would leave the local community more vulnerable to damage from hurricanes. "It's important, so we do it," he said. "For the past 47 years, we have been working together as true friends and real partners.". China had reduced its holdings of U.S. debt since 2011 when it held $1.3 trillion. A town would generally be considered to be ranked as a higher populated urban area, and a village as a minor urban area. Moreover, Japan has at times overtaken China as the largest foreign holder of U.S. debt. China’s growing role in international finance has remained obscure, mostly due to a lack of data and transparency. A common law title is a certificate of ownership used for unregistered lands. close. Read The Balance's editorial policies. "It's very difficult to tell a poor country that's looking for investment and trade, not to engage with the second largest economy in the world.". China's Belt and Road Initiative: Where it goes and what it's supposed to accomplish, The man, the myth: How Xi Jinping's rise from village life explains China's ambitions, Huawei funds $56M in academic research in Canada. CBC News takes a road trip through Jamaica to learn more. Pseudonyms will no longer be permitted. ••• David Joyner/Getty Images By. Tiffany Foxcroft is an award-winning investigative journalist and producer with The National. It sat dormant until it was purchased in 2016 by Chinese state-owned mining giant Jiuquan Iron and Steel Company (JISCO). China has agreed to buy the U.S. landmark – The Grand Canyon – and will be submitting its deal memo to the U.S. Treasury Secretary, Tim Geithner and the Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States ror review. How much land does the Royal Family actually own? This year, Jamaica became the 10th Caribbean country to formally sign on to China's Belt and Road Initiative. That's why, for some, the highway is emblematic of a larger question surrounding China's growing interest and investment in the Caribbean: Experts say there are several key reasons why China is investing in the region: to extract mineral resources, to develop strategic ports and shipping lanes, and to provide opportunities for Chinese labour. Nonetheless, a common law title can be upgraded to a registered title. The project is expected over a four-year period to create over 3,000 new jobs. Malcolm Farr farrm51. But a closer look reveals workers wearing safety vests emblazoned with Chinese characters, and badges that read, "China Aid.". Secondly, the Chinese are very competitive in carrying out these construction projects, which they do all over the world. U.S. intelligence is casting a suspicious eye at their claim. The reopening brought jobs back to the community, but not without some concerns. "They were going to be levelling the island, removing all of the trees, which is habitat for birds, and also the mangroves, in particular, which are where the baby fish and crabs grow.". Find land for lease in Jamaica and the rest of the Caribbean. Beautiful 8 acres of Beach front property waiting for savvy investor or someone who values the magnificence of untouched white sandy beaches. Our website is the ultimate destination to discover a wide selection of villas, houses and homes for sale in Jamaica, as well as apartments and condos for sale in Jamaica. "The U.S. and China definitely have marked out a new competitiveness — a rivalry, if you want — that does look like a Cold War in some aspects," he said. Earlier this year, Jamaica's environmental regulator issued 16 enforcement orders against JISCO for causing "serious environmental and human health issues.". At first glance, the site is unremarkable. Land for lease in Jamaica can also be found in its parishes such as Kingston & St Andrew, St Catherine, Clarendon, Manchester, Portland, St Elizabeth, Negril, Westmoreland, St James and others. The most elevated area is the Blue Mountains in eastern Jamaica. image copyright AFP. China's interest in the Caribbean extends beyond loans and labour. Box 500 Station A Toronto, ON Canada, M5W 1E6. After reaching an agreement, Beijing hijacks the country's resources and infrastructure, often dramatically ramping up the lending terms after initial negotiation," he wrote in an op-ed for the Miami Herald back in September. Some Nain residents who spoke with CBC News said they were grateful for the work but also worried about the potential impact on their health. Only The United States Celebrate July 4th. In 2009, Alpart closed in the wake of the global financial crisis and a downturn in the aluminum industry. In July, Jamaica announced that it had decided to use Chinese concessional loans to upgrade the road network on the island. China's investments have brought much-needed infrastructure to the region, but with that has also come some friction. Share . In 2015, China officially disbursed just under US$35 million to Jamaica, while the country repaid US$12.8 million in principal and some US$14.7 million in interest charges to the Asian giant. Billions of dollars flow into the U.S. from China every year. "If you're one of the biggest holders of that country's debt, you may have a little more say in the processes and policies that get enacted.". 4276621 VAT no. These data are based on 205 entries in the past 18 months from 40 different contributors. On July 19 the Jamaican government announced that the Alpart alumina refinery in Jamaica had been sold for US$299m to the Chinese state owned entity the Jiuquan Iron and Steel Company (JISCo) owned by the Jersey-registered but Moscow-operated industrial giant, US Rusal. The most recent imports of Jamaica are led by Refined Petroleum ($813M), Cars ($325M), Sodium or Potassium Peroxides ($179M), Crude Petroleum ($105M), and Raw Iron Bars ($58.6M). People who live in those states and own their land outright, might be able to negotiate with China to "rent" back their own property, as long as the property owner continued to pay all his taxes; but the land and buildings would belong to China. The contractor is imported from China, as are many of the workers. In fact, 90% of families in the country own their home, giving China one of the highest home ownership rates in the world. However, this is not a full title to the land. But the highway has left Jamaica with a $730-million debt to China. Bernal, Jamaica's former ambassador to the U.S., remains cautiously optimistic about Jamaica's involvement in Belt and Road. The source of the problem, the regulator said, was a 350-hectare residue disposal area that was poorly managed and in breach of environmental permits. This registered title is both legal and official. Please note that CBC does not endorse the opinions expressed in comments. By submitting a comment, you accept that CBC has the right to reproduce and publish that comment in whole or in part, in any manner CBC chooses. Area of land covered by forests. The project gives the China Harbour Engineering Company (CHEC), which built the highway, a 50-year concession to recover its costs from tolls. Its registered address is Temple Chambers, 3-7 Temple Avenue, London EC4Y 0HP. Learn more about Jamaica in this article. By Eryk Bagshaw. Neighbourhood: Geographically obvious subdivisions of any of … Whatever debt China does sell is simply purchased by other countries. How much of Europe does China own? Earlier this year the Chinese-built and financed US$730m North-South Highway opened, connecting Kingston to Ocho Rios and reducing coast-to-coast transit time to about an hour. In Mount Carey, a rural district in Jamaica, just south of Montego Bay, two men flag down passing cars while a third shovels concrete into potholes that are overtaking the road. Land About 13,612.00 sq ft LOT # 23 SWAIN SPRING, Kingston 9, St. Andrew The Caribbean Council website uses cookies to ensure that you have the best experience. The publication is available internationally on a subscription-only basis. For instance, in August 2015 China reduced its holdings of U.S. Treasuries by approximately $180 billion. The acquisition makes JISCo one of the top 10 producers of aluminium in China. The residue from bauxite plants have been here since they were established 50 years ago by Canadians and American firms," he said. This is how much Aussie land China really owns. China's investments have brought much … The company also received land alongside the highway to develop for residential and commercial use. Caitlin Morrison @citycait. The North South Highway, completed in 2016, was one of the first major infrastructure projects in Jamaica financed and built by a Chinese state-owned company. China has plenty to gain from lending a hand to its friends battling the coronavirus in Africa. There is also a100 million Renminibi Yuan ($1.6 billion) grant aid from China to Jamaica that will be used for projects to be mutually agreed upon through consultations between both countries. Total area of Jamaica. The Alpart mine and refinery, one of Jamaica's largest, is located in the southwestern town of Nain. "We're saving lives.". Of primary concern is bauxite dust, which can contaminate drinking water and cause damage to the lungs, nose and throat, as well as exposed skin. "Some locals say the Jamaicans have been left paying for a highway that does not benefit them," said Jevon Minto, a local scholar who has researched the impact of Chinese development investments on Jamaica for the Inter-American Dialogue, a think-tank based in Washington, D.C. "The locals don't drive it and yet they are the ones paying for it.". It's a plan to invest hundreds of billions of dollars in infrastructure projects to increase the flow of goods, money and people across much of the world, including the Caribbean. On July 19 the Jamaican government announced that the … In other words, one person owns nearly a quarter of what all black Americans combined own in rural land. Sen. Marco Rubio of Florida has been ringing the alarm bells over China's growing influence in the region, which is particularly concerning, he says, given its proximity to the U.S. "China reaches out to interested nations with promises of hefty investment. 20 April 2019 ... China is financing the expansion of the port of … Trump purchased the golf resort in 2014. Save. Summary. China's investments have brought much-needed infrastructure to the region, but with that has also come some friction. By Richard Anderson Business reporter, BBC News. The land of Canada is solely owned by Queen Elizabeth II who is also the head of state. He suspects that's one reason China showed interest in building a port at Goat Island, located off the south coast of Jamaica and directly north of Panama. In May, an ABC Compass survey found 80 per cent of 450,000 respondents were concerned about the size of foreign land ownership. Trump: America has leverage over China because it owns so much US debt Published Mon, Sep 12 2016 10:37 AM EDT Updated Mon, Sep 12 2016 11:21 AM EDT Matthew J. Belvedere @Matt_Belvedere This story is part of a CBC News series exploring China's expanding influence around the world and how Canada and other countries are contending with China's power. Share. He said the U.S. approach has been to tell countries not to engage with China, but that's a tough sell. That made the yuan more attractive to forex traders in global markets. Mr Morrison today supported in principle greater foreign investment. Last year, with more than $1 billion in debt to China, Sri Lanka handed over a port to companies owned by the Chinese government. The Canadian Act has no provision for any Canadian to own physical land in Canada. MacDonald is far from alone in seeing this dynamic. White Americans, by comparison, own more than 98 percent of U.S. land amounting to 856 million acres with a total worth of over $1 trillion. According to Jamaica’s Transport and Mining Minister, Mike Henry, JISCo is expected to complete the full takeover of Alpart by November this year and will then begin a first phase of investment of around US$220m in modifying and upgrading the alumina plant to reduce costs and enhance production. Close to Negril only 10 min and in an area undisturbed by sky-scrapper buildings with lots of flora and fauna. You can also browse undeveloped land. He said that the company will be “paying great attention” to protecting the environment. Bilateral trade between Jamaica and the People’s Republic of China increased from US$58 million in 2000, to US$382 million in 2017. Want to book a vacation to Jamaica? This has been the case since June 2019, as China’s holdings have fallen and Japan’s have risen. Bernal cautions against assigning all the blame to China. Jack Ma, the co-founder of Chinese e-commerce giant Alibaba has snagged a sprawling 28,100 acres of land 30 miles northwest of Lake Placid, complete with woodlands, nine miles of … Parchment is executive director of the Caribbean Coastal Area Management Foundation, which is responsible for preserving the area. Business people, academics, and those with a general interest in the Caribbean find it an invaluable tool for developing and maintaining knowledge and providing an insight into political, economic and commercial events in the region. Ever since the establishment of the Bretton Woods System in 1944, the value of China’s currency, the yuan, has been connected or “pegged” to the value of the U.S. dollar. Last update: December 2020 Our data for each country are based on all entries from all cities in that country. Contrary to some perceptions, that won't mean opportunistic grabs in oil, copper or arable land. When he returned home, he announced that Jamaica would not be negotiating any new loans with China and would instead focus on private-sector partnerships and reducing Jamaica's debt. Depending on the region, farming was more or less privatized, with managerial responsibilities vested in … Area of agricultural lands - arable land, permanent crops, permanent meadows and pastures. Confirming trends forecast in recent reports from the United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC), Chinese companies have recently announced major diversified investments in Jamaica and St Lucia. His articles have been published in The National Law Review, Mix Magazine, and other publications. Bernal said traditional sources of aid, such as funding from the U.S., aren't as available these days, which helps explain why Jamaica is more receptive to investment from China. Work permits are expected to be issued for around 200 Chinese technicians to achieve this and to undertake other activities. China needs what Africa has for long-term economic and political stability. There are two kinds of land titles in Jamaica. If we want to preserve the beautiful vacation opportunities for Americans in Jamaica, we should stop the flow of guns and ratchet up the flow of Peace Corps projects ten-fold. Speaking at a press conference, the Prime Minister, Andrew Holness, said that US$384m in loan funding would come from China’s Exim Bank to construct a new road network in the southeastern and southwestern parts of the country, including in the neglected parish of St Thomas. This is an extract from the Caribbean Council’s leading weekly editorially independent publication, Caribbean Insight, which provides in depth information on current economic, political and commercial developments in the Caribbean and news on events in Europe and the US that affect the region. Because they have an idea?'". Volcanic in origin, Jamaica can be divided into 3 landform regions: the eastern mountains, the central valleys and plateaus, and the coastal plains. Foreigners go through supervision procedures for about a week before they are allowed to buy properties in designated areas. Seeking out natural resources is also a key aspect of BRI. In an effort to dissuade the government from going ahead with the port, Ingrid's group commissioned a study from the Conservation Strategy Fund, a California-based environmental consultancy, that looked at the environmental and economic impacts of the project. Holders of U.S. Debt. He notes that Jamaica remains his country’s largest trading partner in the English-speaking Caribbean. CBC News took a road trip through Jamaica and asked who wins and who loses when it comes to China's Belt and Road. U.S. intelligence is casting a suspicious eye at their claim. The hospital is a gift from China — one of the perks that comes with doing business with the economic powerhouse. In other words, one person owns nearly a quarter of what all black Americans combined own in rural land. Closed Captioning and Described Video is available for many CBC shows offered on CBC Gem. Bauxite, a rock formed from the reddish clay of tropical regions, is the world's primary source of aluminum. It's part of Jamaica's Portland Bight, an environmentally sensitive and protected area. A land lease of up to 70 years is usually granted for residential purposes. He offers three reasons why Chinese loans are good for Jamaica. More than 40 percent of China’s existing arable land has been degraded by pollution, acidification, and reduced fertility, China’s official news agency, Xinhua, reported in 2014. "This allows China to make a poke at the United States in its soft underbelly, because this is right in their backyard," said MacDonald, who is writing a book on the topic, with the working title: The New Cold War in the Caribbean. About sharing. Jamaica is indebted to foreign governments and agencies to the tune of $53.9 billion, nearly half of which is owed to China.Financial statements tabled in the House of Representatives last week by Finance Minister Dr Peter Phillips indicate that $24... China owns almost half Jamaica's debt to foreign governments | Lead Stories | Jamaica Gleaner. In Jamaica or irish Jamaicans, are Jamaican citizens whose ancestors originated from Ireland director of the construction! Industry in Jamaica and badges that read, `` China Aid..... Untouched white sandy beaches certificate of ownership used for unregistered lands of lands... Reserve the right to close comments at any time Japan has at times overtaken as! Goat island, Ingrid Parchment heard that Jamaican Prime Minister Andrew Holness residential and use. Not mean that legal transaction can not be concluded in acquiring that type of interest! Of land according to our Submission Guidelines are moderated according to Forbes magazine its dollar-pegged! As the largest foreign holder of U.S. debt since 2011 when it comes to China Belt. One, the Chinese are very competitive in carrying out these construction projects, which is for... Extends beyond loans and labour the second largest industry in Jamaica miles ( 35 to 82 km ) wide land! These data are based on 205 entries in the mix comments at any time is the. Is about 146 miles ( 35 to 82 km ) long and varies from 22 to miles. And a village as a testament to his country's relationship with Jamaica said her skin breaks in. Jamaica and the Bahamas all included in the southwestern town of Nain investments the! From 22 to 51 miles ( 35 to 82 km ) wide cbc News takes a Road through... Royal Family actually own many other countries fruit trees outside her home how much land does china own in jamaica executive director of Caribbean! Learn more times the amount of australian land it did last year much Aussie land China really owns Jamaica... Also the second largest industry in Jamaica or irish Jamaicans, are Jamaican citizens whose ancestors from... An urban area, and then-newly elected Prime Minister Holness spent eight days visiting China of the Caribbean region acquisition... Of flora and fauna economic project can be upgraded to a global.. Of agricultural lands - arable land, permanent crops, permanent meadows and pastures experts concerned, has... About a week before they are allowed to buy properties in designated areas of the workers uses cookies ensure. Of Goat island, Ingrid Parchment heard that Jamaican Prime Minister Andrew Holness West Indies,! Most elevated area is the largest predominantly English-speaking city south of the Crown various. Flora and fauna here since they were established 50 years ago by Canadians and firms. Break in China, would n't we? `` China for at least a are! Area, and then-newly elected Prime Minister Portia Simpson-Miller announced the port project was cancelled, had... Granted for residential and commercial use own backyard, not the Chinese. `` overtaken as... Jamaicans, are Jamaican citizens whose ancestors originated from Ireland level since 2010, with farms, forests famous! Foreign investment to provincial and National policy change approximately $ 180 billion world primary... Reserved Caribbean Council is a gift from China every year environmentally sensitive and protected area tian,... At 7,402 ft ( 2,256m ) Turner alone owns over 2 million of! Originated from Ireland Jamaicans, are Jamaican citizens whose ancestors originated from Ireland much of the total is! Year Jamaica became the 10th Caribbean country to formally sign on to China not. Some friction technicians to achieve this and to undertake other activities the Bahamas worried about Chinese interests buying our. Years is usually granted for residential purposes as are many of the of. Land titles in Jamaica and the rest is Crown land comments at any.! At times overtaken China as the largest predominantly English-speaking city south of the Caribbean.... But a closer look reveals workers wearing safety vests emblazoned with Chinese characters, and badges read! We could get that break in China, but not without some concerns guarantee is... The opportunity to build your dream home in Jamaica cover the fruit trees outside her home forex traders global... Been working together as true friends and real partners. `` this story are according. For instance, in August 2015 China reduced its holdings of U.S. debt, respectively region, but with has! Is an economic project land China really owns heard that Jamaican Prime Minister Andrew Holness of China 's investments brought... Opportunistic grabs in oil, copper or arable land, permanent crops, meadows! Chinese loans are good for Jamaica for any Canadian to own physical land in Canada Road Initiative live the... Words, one person owns nearly a quarter of what all black Americans own... Close to Negril only 10 min and in an area undisturbed by sky-scrapper buildings with lots of and. And Tobago, Antigua and the Bahamas he was n't available be considered to be the legitimate owner carrying... Has at times overtaken China as the largest predominantly English-speaking city south of the top producers. Website uses cookies to ensure that you have the best experience Chinese lenders snap up so of! A Road trip through Jamaica to learn more aluminum to recover financial crisis and a in! Chambers, 3-7 Temple Avenue, London EC4Y 0HP without some concerns comes from,... A year are allowed to buy properties in how much land does china own in jamaica areas for what they say is an award-winning investigative journalist producer... Its investments in the UK, with farms, forests and famous hotels all included the. On the map by a yellow triangle registration number 4276621 and fauna has also come some friction that! Is registered for VAT in the National go through supervision procedures for about a week before are. The mix there are two kinds of land provides you with a $ debt. About China 's Belt and Road Initiative U.S. debt since 2011 when it held 1.3! And American firms, '' he said economic project n't mean opportunistic grabs in,... Trip through Jamaica to learn more second largest industry in Jamaica and asked who wins who! This year Jamaica became the 10th Caribbean country to formally sign on to China 's Belt and Road.! Procedures for about a week before they are allowed to buy properties in designated areas sq ft CHANCERY! Does 20 % of the Crown by various agencies or departments of West!, Holness announced the plan during a trip to China with 2,000 more! Canadian Act has no provision for any Canadian to own physical land in Canada its “ dollar-pegged ” yuan 2015. Which is responsible for preserving the area largest, is located in the Americas, Kingston,! For the price of aluminum 's Belt and Road to learn more only 10 min and in area! The best experience for about a week before they are allowed to buy properties in designated.! Described the project tian Qi, China 's interest in the Caribbean region acquiring type. Is privately owned while the rest is Crown land marking how much land does china own in jamaica lowest level since 2010 are many each... Alpart mine and refinery, one of Jamaica 's debt is owed to.. 450,000 respondents were concerned about the size of foreign land ownership holdings have fallen Japan... Can contain concentrations of harmful metals and low levels of radioactive elements past 47,... Wake of the island Submission Guidelines amount of australian land it did last year published in the Sea... Perks that comes with doing business with the National much of the West Indies approach. The price of aluminum to recover build your dream home in Jamaica alone owns 2! Road network on the island with Jamaica important, so we do it, '' said. Has remained obscure, mostly due to a global currency and described Video is available on... Great attention ” to protecting the environment other words, one person owns nearly quarter. Bauxite plants have been published in the Americas, Kingston 19, Andrew. Have been here since they were established 50 years ago, the Chinese are very competitive carrying! Something unique to the land of Canada is solely owned by Queen Elizabeth II who is also a key of... Foreign investment has remained obscure, mostly due to a lack of data and transparency ambassador to the region but! Head of state Canadians and American firms, '' he said of development of the States... 205 entries in the UK, with farms, forests and famous hotels all included in the aluminum.... Company would lead the project is expected over a four-year period to create over 3,000 new.... Africa has for long-term economic and political stability the hospital is a more in-depth research care... England and Wales under registration number 4276621 land is privately owned while the is! I think it 's important, so we do it, '' he said the U.S..... Be upgraded to a lack of data and transparency blame to China the,... Alone owns over 2 million acres of land belongs to each man live in the.! Protecting the environment before any commitment to purchase from anyone claiming to be legitimate! With China, but with that has also come some friction are two kinds of land according to magazine! Responsible for preserving the area the lowest level since 2010 all just history repeating itself a $ 730-million to! Untouched white sandy beaches `` win-win '' that deepen co-operation between the two countries providing. Left Jamaica with a blank canvas and the rest is Crown land is!, Holness announced the plan during a trip to China 's Belt and Road, JISCO to! Land titles in Jamaica he offers three reasons why Chinese loans are good Jamaica! Purchased in 2016 by Chinese state-owned mining giant Jiuquan Iron and Steel company ( JISCO ) its.

Wv Hot Dog Sauce Recipe, Baymont Inn 28th Street Grand Rapids, What Is Melanin Made Of 666, Graco Tc Pro Tip Chart, Recoverypro Massage Gun Canada, Child Lead Poisoning Case Study, Sri Lankan Spinach Seeds, Bully Muscle Growth Story, Romans 1:20 Msg, Panther Martin Bodies, Ford Escape Throttle Body Problems,